1.Philosophia_JPII Commemorative Issue C
Philosophia: International Journal of Philosophy (PIJP) is published by the Philippine National Philosophical Research Society (PNPRS). It is published every January and June of each year.
Φιλοσοφια (Philosophia means “Love of Wisdom”) publishes articles that present all types of philosophical points of view. It is open to all branches of philosophy and all types of philosophical idiosyncrasies for as long as the arguments are rationally and logically presented. Thesis-oriented discursive papers are preferred. Basically expository writings of a philosopher’s ideas should show—rather than simply assuming it impliedly—the significance of the exposition.
Authors are responsible for the accuracy of all quotations and for providing complete references. An abstract of not more than two hundred words, summarizing the thesis or intent of the article, should be appended along with the brief curriculum vitae of the author.  For multiple submissions, only one paper will be published every year. The medium of expression of the journal is English—American or British. Only the letters of the British-American alphabet, including the Spanish-Filipino  will be accepted in the document text.

Authors of published articles in this journal are entitled to receive a copy of their respective published papers. They are, however, enjoined to become members of the Philippine National Philosophical Research Society (PNPRS) during the year their articles appear in the journal.
Philosophia is published both in print and online (open access). 

Rates of printed publication:
Foreign annual subscription rate (including mailing and handling) is US$120.00 for libraries and institutions. Local annual subscription rate for libraries and institutions is PhP1,700. Annual foreign individual membership to the Philippine National Philosophical Research Society is US$80.00 (including mailing and handling) while local membership fee is PHP1,000.00. Checks should be made payable to the Philippine National Philosophical Research Society, c/o The Philosophia Editor, or one can pay through the bank, Moneygram, Paypal, or the Western Union.

Philosophia is abstracted in ISI Web of Knowledge (Clarivate Analytics, formerly part of Thomson Reuters), Scopus (Elsevier), and The Philosopher’s Index. It is included in the ASEAN Citation Index Database, and EBSCO Database. It is listed in Ulrich’s International Periodicals Directory and in International Directory of Philosophy. The Philippine  Commission on Higher Education (CHED) certified the journal as Category  A-1 in 2012  and also awarded it with the Journal Incentive Program (JIP) Journal Challenge Grant in 2017.
Copyright 2017 © Philippine National Philosophical Research Society
Email addresses:
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means—electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise—without written permission from the copyright owner.

ISSN 2244-1875 [print and online]
(formerly 0115-8988)

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Editorial Board


Jove Jim S. Aguas, Ph.D. 

Associate Editor

Napoleon M. Mabaquiao, Ph.D.

Managing Editor

Juan Rafael G. Macaranas, Ph.D.

Book Review Editors

Wilfried M. A. Vanhoutte, Ph.D.
Noelle Leslie Dela Cruz, Ph.D.


Editorial Consultants

William Sweet, PhD,  DEA
St. Francis Xavier University, Antigonish, Nova Scotia, Canada

Narcisa Paredes-Canilao, PhD
University of the Philippines, Baguio City, Philippines

Peter M. Collins, PhD
Institute for the History of Philosophy and Pedagogy 
Rockville, Maryland, USA

Yousuf  Dadoo, PhD
University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa

George Mousourakis, PhD
University of Auckland, New Zealand

Halina Marlewicz, Ph.D.
Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland

Tran van Doan, PhD
National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan

Lok Chong Hoe, PhD
University Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia

Olatunji Oyeshile, PhD
University of Ibadan, Nigeria

Danilo S. Alterado, Ph.D.                    
Saint Louis University, Baguio City, Philippines

James M. Lawler, PhD
State University of New York, Buffalo, USA
Edward Alam, PhD
Notre Dame University, Louaize, Lebanon

Brendan Sweetman, Ph.D.

Rockhurst University, Kansas City, Missouri, USA

Santiago Sia, Ph.D. D.Litt.

Milltown Institute, National University of Ireland

Dublin, Ireland

Zailan Moris, PhD
Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia

Daniel P. Kroger, PhD
St. Anthony Messenger Press, Ohio, USA

Lewis R. Gordon, PhD
Temple University, Philadelphia, USA

Warayuth Sriwarakuel, PhD
Assumption University of Thailand, Bangkok, Thailand

Leni Garcia, PhD
De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines

Mathew Varghese, PhD
The Eastern Institute & Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo, Japan


Ted Honderich, Ph.D.
University College London. UK

Dan Chitoiu, Ph.D.

Alexandru Cusa University, Iasi, Romania

Paul Thom, Ph.D.    
University of Sydney, Australia

Jeanette Yasol-Naval, PhD
University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines

Ioan Dura, Ph.D.
Ovidius University, Constanta, Romania


Paolo A. Bolaños, Ph.D.
University of Santo Tomas, Manila